Programmers Handbook


Welcome to KSOW-lp! You are about to become familiar with the “ KSOW-lp Broadcaster Handbook”. The purpose of this handbook is to provide a basic orientation to Real Rural Radio KSOW-lp 106.7 (hereinafter called “KSOW” for the purposes of this handbook only). It will also outline the federal and state regulations and station policies that define the rights and responsibilities you have as a broadcaster. A thorough understanding of this handbook is important. It will help you fulfill your obligations as a volunteer broadcaster at KSOW. The handbook serves two functions. First, it is an important part of the training process for new broadcasters. Second, it serves as a reference for active broadcasters to consult when questions of policy arise. The handbook establishes the ground rules and the re-courses we have when we don’t see eye-to-eye on those rules. While the handbook may not answer every tough question broadcasters might have about station policy, it will help us all work together toward our common goal of making KSOW radio the best it can be.Every broadcaster is responsible for knowing and understanding all the policies contained in the Broadcaster Handbook. Ask the KSOW Program Director or Station Manager if you have any questions.


“KSOW-lp is an all-volunteer; rural radio station which provides a non-commercial platform for unique, locally produced programming that is reflective of the diverse talents and interests of our broadcasters and listeners.Our goal is to provide entertaining, educational and informative programming representative of our community’s needs and interests.


So, what does it mean to be a KSOW broadcaster? In the simplest sense, you are someone who broadcasts at KSOW. But in the same way that the preceding discussion illustrates that KSOW is not just a regular old radio station, neither are you just a broadcaster at some radio station. In a very real way, you are KSOW. It is your personality and your creativity that defines the station’s on-air sound. KSOW broadcasters represent an amazing range of ages, backgrounds, points of view, musical tastes and modes of expression. Even if the only thing we all hold in common is that we have gathered together here at the West Cascade foothills, Coast Fork Willamette Valley region to use the medium of community radio to express our respective passions.We all share an enthusiasm for radio and a collective sense of pride in community and place that can only compliment our work with RRR/ KSOW-lp. In the hours that you spend at the soundboard, you are running the station and you are KSOW. It is both a great freedom for you and a profound responsibility to those with whom you share this endeavor. As KSOW-lp broadcasters, we must treat this opportunity with care and respect.


here are those who occasionally broadcast at KSOW as a substitute or guest host and are considered “substitute” broadcasters. “Active broadcasters” are involved regularly and either substitute on a frequent basis or are assigned one or more regular air shifts.By definition, an active broadcaster is one who has been certified by KSOW and has broadcast at least once in the past six months and is current on his/her KSOW Points.These criteria are explained in this handbook. In addition, everyone is considered an“interim broadcaster” – meaning there are no permanent positions at KSOW.


Let’s not forget the listener. What does a listener want from KSOW? Well, it would be hard to describe everyone’s reason for tuning in to KSOW on a regular basis. It seems fair to say that most people tune in for two reasons: They find something on KSOW that’s worthwhile, and they find something on KSOW that they can’t find anywhere else.If we give them programming that’s readily available elsewhere, what’s to stop them from tuning elsewhere? If we give them programming that’s unique and different, but of a low production quality, why should they tune in? It’s important to give the listeners what they want, programming that is unique and relevant to the community which it serves with a standard of excellence in production qualities. KSOW is interested in serving the community by including listeners directly in the process of programming radio. We invite people from the community to join in and become a volunteer at the radio station, at KSOW events or become a volunteer broadcaster. Active participation by members of the community best insures that the community’s wishes are well represented. We are part of a community, and it’s that community that we serve.

3.7 BMI

BMI is an American performing rights organization that represents more than 300,000songwriters, composers and music publishers in all genres of music. The non-profit company, founded in 1939, collects license fees on behalf of those American creators it represents, as well as thousands of creators from around the world who choose BMI for representation in the United States. The license fees BMI collects for the “public performances” of its repertoire of approximately 4.5 million compositions – including radio airplay, broadcast and cable television carriage, Internet and live and recorded performances by all other users of music – are then distributed as royalties to the writers, composers and copyright holders it represents. KSOW pays a yearly fee to BMI.


ASCAP is a membership association of over 190,000 U.S. composers, songwriters and publishers of every kind of music and through agreements with affiliated international societies, ASCAP also represents hundreds of thousands of music creators worldwide.ASCAP is the only U.S. performing rights organization created and controlled by composers, songwriters and music publishers, with a Board of Directors elected by and from the membership. ASCAP protects the rights of its members by licensing and distributing royalties for the non-dramatic public performances of their copyrighted works. KSOW pays a yearly licensing fee to ASCAP



KSOW would not exist without an active and dedicated volunteer base. Volunteers run every aspect of the station including assistance with office administration, event production, music library maintenance, fundraising, board and committee representation and of course, on-air broadcasting. It all starts and ends with volunteers as there are currently no paid positions at KSOW.

4.2 Real Rural Radio


The station manager manages the day to day activities of the station and serves as a community spokesperson for KSOW. Duties include Interfacing with the KSOW management team to make sure that jobs are being handled. Handles distribution of studio keys. Handle disputes and discipline issues with broadcasters and staff. Make sure that rent is paid & insurance covered. Make sure that KSOW is compliant with FCC regulations. Make sure that broadcasters are doing volunteer work. Needs organizational, communication & management skills. Must be a people person. Takes direction from and reports to the RRR. 6 hours a week.


The office manager maintains office equipment and supplies, ensures adequate inventories of KSOW forms, including the KSOW Brochure (Tri-fold) and broadcast calendars. Works with the studio custodian to keep studio & office clean and organized.Check message machine (at least 3 times a week) and make sure messages get to the right party. The Office Manager also assists the Station Manager when needed. 2-3hours a week.


The Program Committee, which is chaired by the Program Director, will be responsible for all aspects of KSOW programming and assignment of on-air schedule. The Program Committee will develop program guidelines, which will be approved by RRR The PC has a set of operating guidelines and policies, which are available from the Program Director.

4.7 OPERATIONS MANAGER (Chief Engineer)

The Operations Manager is responsible for the technical maintenance of KSOW’s broadcast facilities, including broadcast and production equipment at the station and transmission equipment at KSOW’s transmitter site. He/she will work together with the Studio Technician positions and is also responsible for the upkeep of the FCC required Station Operations Log.


The Program Director has the responsibility of overseeing all aspects of programming.This position acts as the liaison between KSOW and its volunteer broadcasters. The Program Director chairs and works with the Program Committee to review and arrange our broadcast schedule, fill air shift vacancies, and evaluate existing programs.


The Music Director acquires recordings for the station and manages the music library so that recordings are easy to locate by genre. The Music Director inspires and encourages broadcasters to use the library by letting broadcasters know what is new and what is good. Prepares a quarterly report


The Public Affairs Director is to public affairs programming what the Music Director is to music. The Public Affairs Director monitors and collects information from the community as it relates to public affairs. This information is then passed on to the programming committee to be incorporated within KSOW programming.


The Membership Coordinator maintains the computer database of KSOW’s listener-supporters (i.e., our members). The Membership Coordinator maintains account records, prepares mailers, membership cards, and premiums. The Membership Coordinator works closely with the Program Director to schedule and organize KSOW’s on-air membership campaigns.Broadcaster Handbook 2008 v.09.01.2194.12UNDERWRITING COORDINATOR The Underwriting Coordinator manages the accounts of businesses that underwrite on-air programming at KSOW. The Underwriting Coordinator writes and schedules on-air underwriter acknowledgements, prepares the Traffic Log (see Exhibits Section) and maintains all of KSOW’s underwriting “house” accounts.


The On-Air Announcement Manager creates and maintains the files that contain our on-air public service announcements (sometimes called PSAs). He/she receives information for our on-air announcements from a variety of sources, including our website, local newspapers, flyers, notices, community members and clubs that are of interest to our listeners.


The Public Relations Coordinator manages KSOW’s attendance at selected community events. He/she chairs the PR Committee which is actively involved in working on a variety of activities and projects associated with our visibility in the community and at community-sponsored events. This committee also has a component position for volunteer mobilization, called (obviously) The Volunteer Mobilization Manager.


The Music Librarian organizes and maintains the various forms of media that are part of the “music library” at KSOW. He/she establishes and assigns categories for genres of music and maintains Library inventories.


The Fundraising Coordinator is responsible for activities that raise money for various projects and expenses associated with KSOW. He/she also is the manager for the Annual KSOW Fundraising Concerts.4.17LISTENER GUIDE EDITOR The Listener Guide Editor acts as the publication manager for the KSOW Quarterly Listener Guide and manages all associated activities with the production of that Guide,including acting as Chair of the Listener Guide Committee.


This is a RRR Board position. The Treasurer manages the accounts payable/receivable for RRR/KSOW. This includes making bank deposits, maintaining accounting records and writing checks to pay bills. He/she is the Chair for the Budget & Finance Broadcaster Handbook 2008 v.09.01.211Committee which evaluates and approves (or denies) requests for disbursement of funds for KSOW activities and projects.


The Secretary acts as the record keeper for RRR & KSOW. Some duties include taking notes and recording minutes for official meetings, and publishing those notes in such away that actions agreed to at official meetings are clearly understood. Additional clerical duties may be assigned by RRR from time to time.


The Office Manager maintains office equipment and supplies, ensures adequate inventories of official KSOW forms, including the KSOW Brochure (“tri-fold) and Broadcast Calendars. The Office Manager also assists the Station Manager.


The Antenna Move Project (AMP) Coordinator is the project manager for the relocation of the KSOW broadcast tower. He/she is Chair of the AMP Committee which is currently involved with moving the tower (antenna) to a site at a higher elevation so KSOW will increase its broadcast radius.


The Adopt-A-Highway Project Manager is responsible for supervising the activities associated with the removal of litter from a two-mile stretch of Highway 193, one mile either side of Main Street in Georgetown. “KSOW Litter-Pickers” meet the last Saturday of the month to clean debris from Highway 193. Volunteers may come from KSOW Broadcasters and other interested community members. This effort is one way KSOW gives back to the community.


The Studio Technician is responsible for regular maintenance of CD players, cassette players and turntables. He/she works with the Chief Engineer to troubleshoot repairs and upgrade studio equipment. He/she is authorized to make repairs on KSOW Broadcasting equipment. IF YOU ARE NOT A STUDIO TECHNICIAN, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REPAIR OR RECONNECT ANY KSOW BROADCASTING EQUIPMENT.




5.1 Definition:

KSOW Broadcasters have the expectation and right to:be thoroughly trained with station equipmentbe informed of current FCC rules and regulationsbe informed of current KSOW rules and regulationsreceive written and verbal feedback on their programsreceive assistance to improve broadcasting skillsbe contacted beforehand of any preemption of a regular air shifthave safe environment and have properly working equipmenthave a safe, secure working facilityexpect the station management to follow prescribed guidelines, policies and procedures when making decisions that affect broadcasters and their assigned programs Broadcaster Handbook.


6.1.0 Becoming a Broadcaster

6.1.1 Broadcaster Definition – All broadcasters are “Interim Broadcasters”; and they are either “Active” or “Inactive”. Obviously, an Active Broadcaster has an on-air show; an Inactive Broadcaster does not have a current on-air show.

6.1.2 Minimum Requirements:

To Complete and submit to the Program Committee An On-Air Show Application (See Exhibits section) – specific music genres to be played, time slot or slots requested and name of show are just apart of the information required to Sign a Hold Harmless Agreement and Release (Under 18 broadcasters must have their parents sign along with their signature) – See Exhibits section, Be trained by a qualified broadcaster trainer (Under 18broadcasters must have at least one parent present during the training and during all broadcasting)o Purchase a Broadcaster Handbook and a studio key – (see current fees); other fees may be levied; advance notice will be given o Sign a statement that they have read the broadcaster handbook and will agree to follow the guidelines set forth as they relate to the FCC and KSOW (Under 18 broadcasters must have their parents sign along with their signature) o Attend Quarterly Broadcaster Meetings which are held in March,June, September and December Meet KSOW Point requirements (outlined later in this Handbook) Additional requirements are contained in this Handbook and maybe added from time to time Broadcasters must be current and in good standing with “KSOW Points” to maintain their programs. The definition of “current and in good standing”is that a broadcaster has no active reprimands or suspensions from the Program Committee,AND has acquired adequate “KSOW Service Points”for the current year to date.

6.1.3 Annual Renewal

All broadcasters are required to submit a Renewal On-Air Show Application during the Annual Renewal Period. This process usually occurs during the months of March, April and May. Applications are due by March 31st This is an opportunity for the broadcasters to change their formats, request schedule or time changes, or other show and program changes. An approved or renewed program application will be understood as a one year obligation to perform the program (unless released by the Program Committee (PC); or by a PC approved substitute; or removed from programming by the PC. On-Air Show Renewal Applications will be reviewed during the month of April and the new programming schedule will begin on May 1st. (Further details are in this Handbook).

6.2.1 Smoking Policy

6.6 Non-harassment

KSOW prohibits sexual harassment, harassment based on pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions, race,religious creed, color, national origin or ancestry, physical or mental disability, medical conditions, marital status, age, sexual orientation or any other basis protected by federal, state or local law or ordinance or regulation. Prohibited unlawful harassment includes, but is not limited to,the following behavior Verbal conduct such as epithets, derogatory jokes or comments,slurs or unwanted sexual advances, invitations or comments.o Visual conduct such as derogatory and/or sexually oriented posters, photography, cartoons, drawings or gestures.o Physical conduct such as assault, unwanted touching, blocking normal movement or interfering with work because of sex, race or any other protected basis. o Threats and demands to submit to sexual requests or added benefits in return for sexual favors.o Retaliation for having reported or threatened to report harassment.6.7Recourse for harassment: of you believe that you have been unlawfully harassed, provide a written complaint to the Station Manager as soon as possible after the incident. Your complaint should include details of the incident tor incidents, names of the individuals involved and names of any witnesses. KSOW will immediately undertake an effective,thorough and objective investigation of the harassment allegations. of KSOW determines that unlawful harassment has occurred,effective remedial action will be taken in accordance with the circumstances involved. Any volunteer determined by KSOW to be responsible for unlawful harassment will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal. A KSOW representative will advise all parties concerned of the results of the investigation. KSOW will not retaliate against you for filing a complaint and will not tolerate or permit retaliation by volunteers. of KSOW encourages all volunteers to report any incidents of harassment forbidden by this policy immediately so that complaints can be quickly and fairly resolved. The Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and State of Oregon investigate and prosecute complaints of prohibited harassment. If you think you have been harassed or that you have been retaliated against for resisting or complaining, you may file a complaint with the appropriate agency. The nearest office is listed in the telephone book.

6.8 Courtesy and Respect

At all times KSOW broadcasters are expected to treat fellow broadcasters/colleagues and other radio stations with respect and to care for KSOW’s equipment, broadcast studio, music library and other facilities.Broadcasters are expected to clean up after themselves and leave the booth as clean as or cleaner than they found it.6.9Theft – Unless authorized by the Music Director, do not take station recordings out of KSOW facilities for any reason. Unauthorized possession of KSOW recordings while off the KSOW facilities is considered theft and will be subject to immediate and permanent dismissal and legal prosecution.6.10Food and Drink – Because accidents could prove extremely costly, food and drink are forbidden behind and around the broadcast board and equipment. Broadcasters may keep a closed beverage container on the far table, away from the broadcast board or other studio equipment.

6.11 KSOW Points

Active broadcasters are required to perform volunteer service hours to benefit KSOW. KSOW Points will be “earned”throughout the broadcast year for various functions or services to KSOW. The required point levels are:o Broadcasters with 6 or more hours of airtime each month must earn 36 points annually o Broadcasters with 4 to 5 hours of airtime each month must earn 18 points annually o Broadcasters with less than 3 hours of airtime each month must earn 9 points annually Programs with more than one broadcaster may “share the points” as if there was only one host.Points will apply beginning on May 1st and ending on April 30th and tallied quarterly. Quarterly review of points by the Program Committee and Volunteer Mobilization Manager (VMM) will occur to ensure that broadcasters remain in good standing. Points may be accrued and credited towards future broadcast hours. No more than one year’s worth(the broadcast year is May 1st to April 30th) of points may be accrued.Points may not be bartered or given to another broadcaster. Generally speaking one hour of service will equal one point. However,certain tasks may be assigned a defined point value. The VMM will determine the point value of each service or task. The VMM will be in Broadcaster Handbook 2008 v.09.01.211charge of assigning broadcasters to services or tasks as they relate to KSOW. For questions, contact the VMM directly.Additionally, points may be earned by “signing-up” new underwriters for programming at KSOW. Each new underwriter that a broadcaster brings to KSOW will be worth 1½ point each month that the underwriter is under contract to KSOW. To get KSOW Service Point credit you must turn in asigned underwriting contract with your name written on the back side with an attached check from the underwriter for the agreed upon period of time.Please submit the point input forms to the VMM.

6.12 Exemptions for KSOW Points:o THERE ARE NONE

6.13 Penalties for Unfulfilled KSOW Points–

The Volunteer Mobilization Manager will tally volunteer service hours (KSOW Points) quarterly and make the data available at the Broadcaster Quarterly Meetings. Failure to fulfill service hours will result in the following actions of a broadcaster is seriously short in fulfilling their service points they will be low man on the totem pole during the annual renewal process and may be at risk of loosing their time slot if a broadcaster in good standing wishes to move into their time slot.These additional actions may also be pursued by the program committee… After one quarter: a written reminder. After two quarters: a verbal and written warning. After four quarters: a two-month suspension of broadcasting privileges. Suspension will be documented in writing and placed in the broadcaster’s personnel file. Suspension will remain in effect until volunteer service hour requirements are fulfilled. If your time slot is filled during your suspension you will likely have to apply for a new time slot.

6.14 Satisfying KSOW Points–

Service hours can be satisfied by helping with a variety of KSOW activities. Time spent preparing for or engineering an assigned show does not satisfy service hours, nor does attendance at General or Broadcaster meetings. The following are examples of activities to earn KSOW Points: PARTICIPATING ON ANY KSOW COMMITTEE – There are many open positions available please check the KSOW Committee organization sheet to see vacancies.

Office Work: Cleaning, dusting the broadcast studio Assistance with mailers (e.g., preparing and stuffing envelopes,collating, bulk mailing, etc.) Ticket sales Making copies Computer work (e.g., data entry, word processing, etc.) Writing public service announcement (“PSA”) cards Phone calling projects Yard work, maintenance, etc., at the broadcast studio Membership Campaign Assistance – All active broadcasters are encouraged to participate in membership drives. The following activities may be counted as volunteer service hours: Membership database programming and maintenance Membership drive planning, conception and scheduling Soliciting for members by phone or mail Help with mailers (e.g., pledge confirmations, premiums)Listeners’ Guide Assistance Writing Listeners’ Guide articles Writing record reviews o Distributing Listeners’ Guide Music Library Maintenance Cleaning music library Filing/alphabetizing recordings Library inventory Reviewing recording so Labeling recordings Programming – While preparation for and engineering a regularly assigned air shift may not be counted as volunteer service hours, some programming related activities might apply. The following are some examples: Training new broadcasters Engineering for other broadcasters Music Computer MP3 Library Maintenance Creating MP3 Playlists for overnight and fill-in air play Typically, working at a KSOW sponsored event allows free admission and,therefore, usually does not also count towards volunteer service hour requirements. If, however, your assistance with an event does not allow you to see the event, you may be able to count time toward your require

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